Integrating Computer Technology into the Classroom, Morrison & Lowther
Gary R. Morrison
and Deborah L. Lowther
Chapter 1 Rethinking Computer and Instruction
"We have yet to see any large scale gains attributed to the infusion of this latest technology"
"We should use the computer as a tool rather than delivery mechanism"
The NTeQ model involvers 10 steps for creating a lesson plan. The student is actively engaged in the learning process, assumes the role of researcher and becomes technologically competent. A bit like discovery learning or problem based learning?
"Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy of in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences." "Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction and is considered a constructivist based approach to education." Wikipedia
Match computer functions
Specify the problem
Activities during computer use
" before "
" after "
(I am suspicious of anything with exactly 10 steps)
Chapter 2, NTeQ a research based model
The No Child Left Behind act requires that an instructional strategy must be proven effective with rigorous research. This is often interpreted as standardised testing which carries a risk of biasing education to instructivism and away from constructivism.
Chapter 2 asserts that NTeQ model is effective. The "factory model' of education is critised and the NTeQ model is effectively identified as a constructivist model "student centred approach", computers as a tool to solve problems rather than deliver instruction.
Quotes a study Authentic Intellectual Work and Standardized Tests: Conflict or Coexistence? 1/2001. Fred M. Newmann, Anthony S. Bryk, and Jenny Nagaoka which compares authentic original work and standardised testing. In a study of 2000 classroom assignments and standardised scores for 5000 students, they found that authentic intellectual activities were 20% more effective than the national average whereas a memorisation approach was 22-25% less effective than national average.
Ross et al, found a number of gains, assessed by students, teachers and parents, though not a rigorous study. Student achievement was assessed in terms of writing performance on a prompted essay. Results significantly favored the Laptop group on all evaluation dimensions—Organization, Ideas, Style, and Conventions.
For an alternative view see Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching . Kirschner Sweller & Clark